Forms of Party Organization in Bismarck's Germany. Pragmatism as the German Liberalism's Ideology (Monica Cioli)
This paper considers the organisation of the German liberal parties (Nationalliberale Partei, Deutsche Fortschrittspartei, and Liberale Vereinigung) at the time of the so-called second foundation of the German Empire (1877/78). Focusing on the constitution (Verfassung), it examines the various relations existing between Konstitution and juridical order. The three liberal parties are investigated with respect to some constitutional factors of German history in the 19th century, especially federalism and associationism. The main thesis is that their organisation followed the "pragmatic" ideology of German liberals, which consisted not in dispensing of the traditional liberal principles but in their adaptation to the concrete historical situation.